1 Red riječi proste rečenice je obično:
Subject + Verb (+ object(s)) (+ complement)
We are eating.
We are eating breakfast.
We are eating breakfast today on the patio.
2 Ako u rečenici postoje bliži i dalji objekat, poredak zavisi od toga da li se radi o zamjenicama ili imenicama:
He gave his mother the history book.
He gave the history book to his mother.
He gave her the history book.
He gave it to his mother.
He gave it to her.
3 Zavisne rečenice neka se stavljaju na početak rečenice odvojene od glavne rečenice zarezom:
After eating breakfast, he went to the office.
–znači isto što i:
He went to the office after eating breakfast.
Glavne riječi za nijekanje
nobody (no one)
no one (nobody)
not only (…) but also (…)
neither … nor
by no means
nary (not anything/not anyone)
Not je valjda najkorisnija engleska riječ za nijekanje. Obično ide iza pomoćnog glagola (am, is, are, were, has, have, had, did, does) kad ovaj ide s participom:
I am not going tonight.
He is not listening.
They are not here yet.
They were not supposed to be here.
That does not have all the parts.
It has not been more than an hour.
He did not arrive until 3:00 p.m.
She was not listening.
That is not what I ordered.
You did not listen to me.
Mjesto ostalih niječnih riječi je različito:
There was not a single piece of cake left.
I received no help from anyone.
Nobody came to help me.
There was no one there.
There was no mail today.
By no means was it certain it would happen.
It is not only wrong but also illegal.
I can stand this no more.
There was nothing more to say.
I will never see it again.
When I asked, nobody (no one) offered to help.
When I looked for it, it was nowhere to be found.
He wanted neither food nor drink.
He wanted nothing, neither help nor a kind word.
Postoje četiri osnovna načina tvorenja izravnih upita:
1 Inverzija normalnog reda riječi:
You speak German. >>> Do you speak German?
She is sleeping >>> Is she sleeping?
You love me. >>> Do you love me?
2 Question word(s) + finite verb (+ subject) (+ complement):
who? >>> Who is coming?
what? >>> What happened?
when? >>> When will it be ready?
why? >>> Why did you do that?
where? >>> Where did you go?
how? >>> How did you do that?
(to) who? >>> You sent it to who?
(to) whom? >>> To whom am I speaking?
whose? >>> Whose coat is that?
(with) whom? >>> With whom did you travel?
3 Subject + finite verb (+ complement):
Rabi se u slučajevima sarkastičkog uzvika:
That’s supposed to be cheap?!
So what’s your point?!
4 Subject + finite verb (+ complement) + tag
Upitne etikete u engleskom: isn’t it (is not it), aren’t you (are not you), doesn’t he (does not he), can’t she (cannot she), itd.:
Isn’t it a shame?
Aren’t you sorry?
Doesn’t he care any more?
Can’t he swim yet?
Neizravni upit ide iza glagola ili rečenice i uvodi se pomoću upitne riječi:
Explain why you’re angry.
Tell me how you want it done.
Show me what to do.
Draw me a picture of it.
Demonstrate it for me.
Are you going already? Yes, I have to go now.No, I still have some time.
Was it interesting? No, it was boring.Yes, it was very interesting.
Didn’t you like it? No, it wasn’t very good.Yes, I liked it very much.
Do you like it? Yes, I like it.No, I don’t like it.
Will you finish today? Yes, I will.No, I won’t be able to finish today.