Posts from the ‘ENGLESKI OSNOVE’ Category

ENGLESKI ESNOVE


01. osnove

02. američki i britanski engleski

03. izgovor

04. imenice

05. engleski određeni član

06. pridjevi

07. prilozi

08. zamjenice

09. prijedlozi

10. veznici

11. velikim slovom uvijek se pišu

12. vrijeme,dani,datumi,brojevi

13. red riječi, nijekanje, upiti, odgovori

14. sažimanja

01. osnove


Engleski je najgovoreniji europski jezik u svijetu sa preko 350 milijuna govoritelja — oko jedna trećina stanovnika zemlje. Postao je gotovo općeprihvaćeni jezik zrakoplovstva, trgovine, medicine, tehike, kompjutorskih znanosti, nakladništva, sredstava javnog priopćavanja i drugih oblasti.

Engleski je glavni jezik Sjedinjenih Država, Ujedinjenog Kraljevstva (Engleska, Škotska, Wales i Sjeverna Irska), Kanada, Australija, Novi Zeland, Irska, Singapur, Gijana, Jamajka, Bermuda i Bahama, Trinidad i Tobago, Barbados, i Beliz. Engleski je također glavni drugi jezik Izraela, Južne Afrike, Kenije, Nigerije, Sudana, Tanzanije, Zambije, Gane, Indije, Pakistana, Sri Lanke, Burme, Hong Konga, Malezije i Filipina. Ukupno preko 750 milijuna ljudi u svijetu govori engleski. Neki smatraju da engleski govori preko miljardu ljudi.

Od gotovo 2,700 jezika svijeta, engleski vjerojatno ima najbogatiji rječnik sa preko 500,000 zabilježenih riječi i još tolikim brojem nezabilježenih znanstvenih i stručnih termina. Za uporedbu, njemački ima rječnik od približno 185,000 riječi, a francuski manje nego 100,000.

Engleski je podrijetlom germanski jezik, ali u njemu ima dosta latinskog utjecaja. Uz to, engleski je usvojio brojne riječi iz drugih jezika i od drugih naroda. Takve su riječi kosher = košerni, pagoda = pagoda, bonanza = bonanca, and facade = fasada, voodoo = vudu, et i druge, sve iz različitih jezika. S druge strane, engleski je posudio veliki broj riječi drugim jezicima.

02. američki i britanski engleski


Premda postoje brojne druge varijante engleskog jezika, američki i britanski engleski su dva glavna oblika koja se koriste u današnjem svijetu. Većina drugih varijeteta temelji se barem u nekoj mjeri na jednom od ta dva glavna oblika. Obje varijante imaju brojne idiome, riječi iz slanga i frazeme karakteristične smao za njih, a uz to razlike se ogledaju i u grafiji, izgovoru i u manjoj mjeri ortografiji.

 Izgovor

Postoji čitav niz različitih izgovora i američkog i britanskog engleskog, ali ono što se može zvati “općim američkim” i “općim britanskim” izgovorim se obično smatra “prosjekom”. Ti “opći” oblici izgovora često se koriste u prijenosima na državnim radijskim i televizijskim postajama. 

 Grafija

Postoji nekoliko glavnih oblasti razlika između britanske i američke grafije, na primjer: 

Hrvatski            Britanski en.        Američki en.

susjed neighbour neighbor
rad labour labor
para vapour vapor
okus flavour flavor
boja colour color
humor humour humor
oprost parlour parlor
ovlastiti authorise authorize
ispričati se apologise apologize
kazalište theatre theater
središte centre center
metar metre meter
kilometar kilometre kilometer
millimetar millimetre millimeter
ček cheque check
putnik traveller traveler
nakit jewellery jewelry
otkazan cancelled canceled
dozvola licence license
obrana defence defense
napadaj offence offense
siv grey gray

 

 Leksičke razlike

Postoje i razlike među riječima i frazemima između britanskog i američkog engleskog, na primjer:

Hrvatski              Britanski en.         Američki en.

stan flat apartment
ploča skirting board baseboard
čips crisps potato chips
ljekarnik chemist druggist
gumica India rubber eraser
auto-put motorway freeway
pomfrit chips french fries
tregeri garters suspenders
smeće rubbish trash/garbage
benzin petrol gas/gasoline
hauba (auta) bonnet (car) hood (car)
kerozin paraffin kerosene
pelena nappy diaper
dizalo lift elevator
kamion lorry truck
najam let rent/lease
pošta post mail
preteći flyover overpass
parkiralište car park parking lot
grožđica sultana raisin
pločnik pavement sidewalk
podzemna tube/underground subway
dva tjedna fortnight two weeks
potkošulja vest undershirt
odmor holiday vacation
krpa face flannel wash cloth
vjetrobran windscreen windshield
prsluk waistcoat vest
ništica nought/nil zero

03. izgovor


Slovo

 

Izgovara se

a

man

men

b

boy

boj

c

cat

ket

d

dog

dog

e

bed

bed

f

food

fud

g

go

gou

h

head

hed

i

sit

sit

j

jump

džamp

k

kite

kajt

l

log

log

m

man

men

n

neck

nek

o

potpose

potpouz

p

pot

pot

q

quit

kvit

r

rabbit

rebit

s

silver

silver

t

top

top

u

under

ander

v

victor

viktor

w

wait

uejt

x

x-rayxerox

eks-rejziroks

y

youngfinally

jangfajneli

z

zebra

zibra

04. imenice


Imenice su riječi kojima se označavaju ljudi, životinje, mjesta, stvari, osobine i misli. Sve engleske imenice su srednjeg roda. Rod također nije bitan za član, pridjev ili glagol. U svim slučajevima the je jedini određeni član što se rabi u engleskom, a a odnosno an are jedini neodređeni član. Tvorba množine imenica u engleskom jeziku obično se obavlja dodavanjem nastavka s ili es na imenicu.

Osoba             Mjesto              Stvar             Osobina
Mary classroom lion happiness
Robert street computer courage
professor New York pencil sincerity
British lake justice intelligence

Imenice se dalje mogu dijeliti na opće, osobne, zbirne, gradivne i složene. Opće označuju bilo koju grupu ljudi, mjesta ili stvari; osobne konkretne osobe, mjesta, stvari; zajedničke grupe ljudi ili stvari; gradivne osobine ili stvari koje se ne mogu fizički brojati; složene imenice sastavljene su od dvije riječi koje se spajaju u jednu riječ ili riječ s crticom. 

Opće    Osobne    Zbirne    Gradivne    Zajedničke
boy Mary team fury airport terminal
ocean Danube River family fluor train station
street Elm Street neighbors sand classroom
dress Lake Erie crowd weakness polar ice cap
kitchen California audience confusion street traffic
car London citizens strength mother-in-law

1 Većina imenica tvori množinu dodavanjem s na kraj:

Jednina                Množina

book books
American Americans
river rivers
ocean oceans
car cars
scene scenes
street streets
mountain mountains
girl girls
cat cats
train trains
case cases
ticket tickets
flower flowers
plate plates
cup cups
cake cakes
cap caps
map maps

2 Mnoge (ali ne sve) imenice koje završavaju na dvostruko slovo (obično ss) tvore množinu dodavanje nastavka es na kraj: 

Jednina          Množina

butt butts
glass glasses
mass masses
compass compasses
match matches
bush bushes
wish wishes
kiss kisses

3 Neke imenice stranog podrijetla na eau rabe x u množini:

Jednina          Množina

bandeau beandeaux

4 Iznimke: 

(A) Ako imenica završava na ispred koga je konsonant, mijenjaju y u i i dodaju es: 

Jednina                                                         Množina 

sky sky – y + i + es = skies
comedy comedy – y + i + es = comedies

Ako imenica završava na y a ispred je vokal,, y ostaje i dodaje se samo s: 

Jednina                Množina 

toy toys
boy boys

(B) Ako imenica završava na fe, to fe mijenja se u ve i dodaje se s: 

Jednina                                                     Množina 

knife knife – fe + ve + s = knives

(C) Nekoliko imenica na o dodaje es u množini:

Jednina            Množina

potato potatoes
Negro Negroes

(D) Mnogo imenica ima nepravilnu množinu. To treba provjeriti u engleskom rječniku. 

Jednina                Množina

radius radii
foot feet
man men
woman women
wife wives
leaf leaves
ox oxen
mouse mice
alumnus alumni
goose geese
child children
sheep sheep
sheaf sheaves

05. engleski određeni član


the book

the idea

the woman

the man

the newspaper

the boy

the girl

the glass

the law

the lion

the lioness

the country

the street

the state

the table

the train

the car

the glass

the cup

the meal

the dog

the cat

the room

the house 

Engleski neodređeni član ima oblik a — koji se koristi kad je iza neodređenog člana riječ koja počinje konsonantom. Kad je iza neodređenog člana riječ na vokal (a, e, i, o, or u), a se mijenja u an:

a book

a man

a woman

a car

a library

a street

a house

a table

a door 

an article

an apple

an application

an edge

an eagle

an egg

an historic (exception)

an idea

an indication

an index

an opal

an option

an opinion

an umbrella

an ungrateful son 

U engleskom pokazne zamjenice (zvane i pokaznim članovima) su:

this

that

each

every

some

many

such

all

which

Pokazne zamjenice idu ispred imenice na koju se odnose:

this man

this magazine

that woman

that book

each person

every article

some folk

many people

such details

all men

which side

Posvojne zamjenice (zvane i posvojnim članovima) tvore se od osobnih zamjenica:

Osobna zamjenica         Posvojna zamjenica

I mine
he his
she her
it its
we our
you your
they their

That coat is mine.

That is his bicycle.

This is her book.

Its outcome is certain.

Our house is painted green.

Your bus is late.

They put their coats on before going outside.

06. pridjevi


Pridjev je opisna riječ koja karakterizira ili modificira imenicu. Postoje dvije vrste engleskih pridjeva 

1.  Prosti pridjevi rabe osnovne riječi kao happy, sad, good, bad, fast, slow, yellow, red, new, old, pretty, ugly, et cetera.

2 . Izvedeni pridjevi tvore se dodavanjem sufiksa na osnovu imenice ili glagola, na primjer:

fashion + able = fashionable
forget + ful = forgetful
hero + ic = heroic
fool + ish = foolish
attract + ive = attractive
humor + ous = humorous
health + y = healthy

U engleskom pridjev obično ide ispred imenice na koju se odnosi: 

Two red cars are parked on the street.

A new world record was set today.

That was a humorous story.

I bought two new books.

She bought a fashionable dress.

He has two new cars.

She is an attractive woman.

That was a terrible book.

It was a boring trip.

Često pridjevi koji opisuju imenice mogu ići iza glagola: 

His two cars are new and fashionable.

His new car is red and fast.

Her new dress is green.

My car is old.

Our trip was boring.

That book was terrible.

Our trip was boring.

07. prilozi


Prilozi, poput pridjeva, modificiraju i određuju količinu, ograničavaju ili pojašnjavaju druge riječi u rečenici.

Tvorba priloga

Uporaba priloga

Mnogi engleski prilozi tvore se dodavanjem nastavka -ly na pridjev. Nekad, ako pridjev završava na e, to e se ispušta: 

pridjev prilog 

new + ly =   newly
pleasant + ly = pleasantly
hesitant + ly = hesitantly
clear + ly =   clearly
near + ly =   nearly
close + ly = closely
dear + ly =   dearly
cost + ly =   costly
affordable -e + ly = affordably
experimental + ly = experimentally

Neke su riječi isključivo prilozi:

there

very

here

almost

Prilozi se se često rabe da odrede glagol ali kao intenzifikatori mogu određivati pridjeve i druge priloge:

 Uz glagol

Prilozi se rabe da odrede glagole i često u rečenici idu iza glagola:

The river flows smoothly.

The time went quickly.

The bus arrived promptly at 3:00 o’clock.

 Uz pridjev

Prilozi mogu biti rabljeni da odrede pridjev. U tom slučaju prilog obično idu ispred pridjeva koji određuju:

The cake is almost gone.

That is a very boring book.

It was unbelievably cold.

 Uz priloge

Prilog može biti rabljen da odredi drugi prilog. U tom slučaju ide ispred priloga koji određuje:

Her hair is amazingly silky.

08. zamjenice


Zamjenica je riječ koja zamjenjuje ili se koristi umjesto imenice ili grupe riječi koje se ponašaju kao imenice. Dijele se na osobne, povratne, neodređene, odnosne i upitne.

Osobne zamjenice

Povratne zamjenice

Neodređene zamjenice

Odnosne zamjenice

Upitne zamjenice

Osobne zamjenice upućuju na određene ljude i dijele se na tri načina:

zamjenice prvog lica —–>          odnose se na govoritelja

zamjenice drugog lica —>          odnose se na slušaoca

zamjenice trećeg lica —–>          odnose se na osobu, mjesto ili stvar o kojoj se govori

I we you he
me us your him
my our yours his
mine ours  she  
her      
hers      
they      
them      
their      
theirs      
it      
its      

Sve osobne zamjenice mogu biti subjekt u rečenici:

I am going shopping.

He took the wrong road.

His car is green.

She is working hard.

Her purse was stolen.

It is a black cat.

Its paw is sore.

We went shopping yesterday.

Our bus is late.

You must always remember to do well.

Your hair is pretty.

They were here last Tuesday.

Their trip was postponed.

Povratne zamjenice rabe se kad se radnja glagola odnosi na subjekt rečenice.

Osobna zamjenica         Povratna zamjenica

I myself
he himself
she herself
it itself
we ourselves
you yourself/yourselves
they themselves

I cut myself yesterday.

I myself don’t like it.

He bought himself a new car.

He himself is responsible.

She cooked herself a wonderful meal.

We bought ourselves a box of chocolates.

You gave yourself quite a shock.

They washed themselves in the river.

You yourself need to be aware.

Neodređene zamjenice mogu se zamijeniti imenicom, ali ne određuju točno ono na što se odnose:

One should always be careful with fire.

There were only three of them, you see.

Some people just never understand.

They have only themselves to blame.

Anyone can do that.

Somebody should tell them.

Someone should say something.

Česte neodređene zamjenice

much little several one
each all many any
most more neither nobody
no one nothing something other
both some everybody none
anyone others either another
anything few anybody everything
somebody someone everybody  

Odnosne zamjenice uvode zavisnu rečenicu. Odnose se na imenicu, zamjenicu ili rečenicu ispred sebe i daju dodatnu informaciju. Najčešće odnosne zamjenice su:

 who

which

that

whom

whose

He was the one who did it.

The clothes which are hanging on the line are nearly dry

The car that just passed was speeding.

She is the person to whom you must speak.

He was the one whose fingers slipped.

Osobne (za ljude)         Neosobne (zastvari)

who     which

whose  what

Upitne zamjenice rabe se u pitanjima. Obično su u jednini, ali često idu uz množinu glagola to be ako je iza imenica u množini:

Who is coming today?

What did you say?

Whose coat is this?

Who can I ask?

Which one do you want?

Who are your friends?

What is the reason?

09. prijedlozi


Prijedlozi kao from, in, about, with, i drugi, su “funkcijske riječi ” i obično pivezuju imenice, glagole, pridjeve i priloge. Obično iza njih idu imenice ili zamjenice: 

Hrvatski   Prijedlog      Primjer

o about He will arrive at about six o’clock.
poslije after He arrived after her.
protiv against He was against the idea.
uz along She went along with the others.
osim apart from Apart from my clothes, I have no possessions.
oko around The bus is due to arrive around 3:00 p.m.
u at I bought it at the bookstore.
prije before Did the chicken come before the egg?
Između between The girl walked between her parents.
- by He traveled by train.
tijekom during It rained during our voyage.
za for He asked for a glass of water.
iz from He came from London
ispred in front of He sat in front of the television all day.
u in I found it in the closet.
Unutar inside Her money is inside her purse.
u into The river flows into the sea.
blizu near He lives near the beach.
- of He is a friend of mine.
na on He came here on his bicycle.
nasuprot opposite I live opposite the park.
izvan out She went out the door.
iz out of He ran out of the house.
van outside The best beach is outside of town.
pored past They went past here yesterday.
oko (okolo) around (round) He just came around the corner.
kroz through He ran through the water.
do until (till) The party continued until (till) dawn.
do to How do I get to the bus station?
prema toward It gets cold toward evening.
ispod under The book is under the newspaper.
sa with She went with her father.
bez without She arrived without her ticket.

10. veznici


1.  Naporedni veznici vezuju dvije slične grupe riječi (npr. imenice, zamjenice, pridjeve, priloge, glagole, sintagme i rečenice). Glavni naporedni veznici su:

but

because

or

and

but

as well as 

I like cheese but I don’t like milk.

He came because I invited him.

Do you want to dance or go home?

You and I will finish the job.

He is smart but not brilliant.

The gift is for John as well as Mary. 

2 Dvodjelni veznici

both (…) and (…)

not only (…) but also (…)

either (…) or (…)

neither (…) nor (…)

Both John and Mary will be there later.

He not only asked Robert but also Jane.

Either you do the job or I will.

Neither John nor Mary knew him very well. 

3.  Prilozi koji se ponašaju kao naporedni veznici. Najčešći su: 

so

therefore

meanwhile

in any case

otherwise

therefore

despite that

I have to get up early so I must go now

The legislature passed the law, therefore we must obey it.

I read the paper, meanwhile Mary did the housework

In any case, we lost the game.

I won the bet, otherwise I would have had to wash the dishes.

He is 35 year old but, despite that, he behaves like a child

4 . Zavisni veznici uvode zavisnu rečenicu. Glavni zavisni veznici su:

that

when

before

after

since

while

if, when(ever)

as if

so that

because

with the

as soon as

although

without

in order to

Please tell him that I would love to do it!

The car drove off the road when the driver failed to see the turn.

If only we had the time, we could do so much.

When(ever) I see her, she always looks so happy.

He was walking as if he were drunk.

Will you help me so that I can get to work on time? 

He blew the car’s horn in order to get her attention.

5 Ispuštanje

Nekad se zavisni veznik može potpuno ispustiti.

Please tell him (that) I would love to do it!

If we (only) had the time, we could do so much.

Will you help me so (that) I can get to work on time?

He blew the car’s horn (in order) to get her attention. 

6 Upitne riječi

Upitne riječi what, who, which i how ponašaju se kao zavisni veznici u neupravnim pitanjima:

Then he asked me what time it was.

He wanted to know how much it cost.

John wanted to know which answer was correct.

11. velikim slovom uvijek se pišu


Zamjenica (nikad se ne piše i)
Prva riječ u rečenici (Today it is raining.)
Imena ljudi (John, Mary, James, Robert, itd.)
Imena naroda i grupa ljudi (American, British, Arabic, Asian, itd.)
Kontinenti (Europe, North America, Africa, Asia, itd.)
Zemlje (United States, Great Britain, Russia, itd.)
Države i pokrajine (California, New York, Denver, Kent, itd.)
Oblasti, planinski lanci, pustinje  (Burgundy, Bavaria, Alps, Andes, Sahara, itd.)
   
Oceani, rijeke i jezera (Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Amazon River, itd.)
Imena tvrdaka (Microsoft Corporation, Translation Experts Limited, itd.)
Religije (Catholic, Protestant, Moslem, Evangelical, itd.)
Godišnja doba (Winter, Spring, Summer, Autumn — also Fall in the U.S.)
Mjeseci u godini (January, February, March, itd.)
Dani tjedna (Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, itd.)